Sample FAQ: Nipple compression pain
Why do my nipples look squashed after breastfeeding?
When babies suck on a nipple, they use suction to hold it in place, and squeeze it against the top of the mouth. Softer nipples may not be able to resist the pressure and change from having a cylinder shape with a flat nipple face, to having a tent or lipstick shape with a pinched nipple face. This is called nipple compression and the resulting pain is nipple compression pain. The pain is sharp as the baby latches, may decrease after a few minutes, or be sharp with each suck toward the end of the feeding. Nipple compression pain starts with the first feed after birth and increases with each feed. It is at its worst between days 3 and 5 and settles during the first two to six weeks after birth. Mothers who have this pain are more prone to nipple damage and to nipple vasospasm, a contraction of the blood vessels.
A) Defining nipple compression
When babies latch onto the breast, they take the nipple deep into their mouths and hold it there with suction. When they suck, they raise and lower the tongue, squeezing the nipple and nipple root against the top of the mouth.
2) How nipple compression develops
Softer nipples may not be able to resist the pressure and suction in the baby’s mouth. They change from a cylinder shape to a more pointed shape that fills the triangular space in the baby’s mouth. In the process, the nipple is folded into a line along the middle or along the side (nipple compression line) and after breastfeeding the nipple looks like a tent or the pointed end of a lipstick.
Nipple compression traumatizes the skin as it is stretched and pinched to form the line. It is also more difficult for blood to enter and leave the affected area. This is seen when the line is white right after breastfeeding. Both the folding and the lack of blood result in pain (nipple compression pain).
The research on this is very limited but the nipple and nipple root characteristics, mouth shape, tongue movement, and suction strength probably all have a role (Sakalidis 2013).
There are a number of options for decreasing nipple compression trauma and pain.
B) Diagnosing nipple compression
1) The appearance nipple compression
You can check for a nipple compression line by looking at the nipple face right after breastfeeding. If your nipple has a fold or line across the face, resulting in a tent or lipstick shape, your nipple is compressed. The line will be in the same direction as the line of the baby’s lips.
In mothers with nipple compression pain, the fold on the nipple face is tender to touch.
2) Mistaking other problems for nipple compression
Some mothers are told that having a compressed nipple is a sign of a poor latch. Rather it is a sign that the baby is latching and the nipple is near the back of the mouth. Mothers may then resort to repeatedly latching and unlatching the baby to get a “better latch”. This results in more nipple trauma and pain.
Some babies who cannot use a nipple shield properly will clamp on the tip. This too can cause a line across the nipple face and pain. While the nipple is compressed, the cause is the nipple shield and mothers should stop using one.
C) Tented or lipstick-shaped nipples
Nipples that are very soft will tend to have a fold across the middle (tent-shaped) once the baby lets go. Nipples that are slightly firmer tend to tip over in the baby's mouth and become lipstick-shaped.
D) Type of pain caused by nipple compression
With each feed, mothers with nipple compression pain:
- Have sharp nipple pain as the baby latches.
- Have decreased pain after a few minutes of breastfeeding.
- May feel sharp pain with each suck toward the end of the feeding.
- Have tender nipples after feeds.
E) Timing of nipple compression pain
Nipple compression pain:
- Starts with the first feed after birth.
- Increases with each feed.
- Is the worst between Days 3 and 5.
- Settles during the first two to six weeks after birth when properly treated.
Once the pain is gone, the nipples may still look compressed after feeds. This is normal for some mothers. The pain will not return.
F) Who is likely to have nipple compression pain
Research has shown that mothers with nipple pain from compressed nipples have babies who (McClellan 2008; McClellan 2015):
- Use significantly more suction to stay latched.
- Keep the nipple in a smaller space between the tongue and the roof of the mouth.
- Take longer to get the same amount of milk.
We have found that nipple compression is more likely if:
- The babies are vigorous.
- The nipples are soft.
- The nipples are at least 0.75 centimetre (5/16 inch) in diameter.
- The nipple root is firmer, requiring a baby to use more suction to stay latched.
The relationship between nipple pain and nipple size and areolar firmess has been found by researchers (Ventura 2020).
Tongue-tie may play a role.
G) Factors that can make nipple compression worse
Nipple compression pain can be made worse by:
1) Poor positioning
2) Excessive breastfeeding
Excessive breastfeeding can traumatize the whole nipple and also make the pain caused by other problems, such as poor positioning and nipple compression, worse.
H) Other problems caused by nipple compression
Mothers with nipple compression are more prone to nipple damage along the compression line. This can be superficial (scab; blistering) or deeper with open skin. Such linear damage can also be called a compression stripe.
A sizeable number of mothers with nipple compression pain develop nipple vasospasm.
McClellan H, Geddes D, Kent J, et al. Infants of mothers with persistent nipple pain exert strong sucking vacuums. Acta Paediatr. 2008 Sep;97(9):1205-9
McClellan HL, Kent JC, Hepworth AR, et al. Persistent Nipple Pain in Breastfeeding Mothers Associated with Abnormal Infant Tongue Movement. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2015 Sep 2;12(9)
Sakalidis VS, Kent JC, Garbin CP, et al. Longitudinal changes in suck-swallow-breathe, oxygen saturation, and heart rate patterns in term breastfeeding infants. J Hum Lact. 2013 May;29(2):236-45
Ventura AK, Lore B, Mireles O. Associations Between Variations in Breast Anatomy and Early Breastfeeding Challenges. J Hum Lact. 2020 Jun 2:890334420931397
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