Transgender and gender-fluid men may choose to have breast surgery to make their chest appear more masculine (top surgery). The surgery removes some or all of the milk tissue and accompanying ducts (Frederick 2017). Any remaining breast tissue will develop in response to pregnancy and produce milk. There is no standard surgical technique, making it difficult to predict its effect on breastfeeding.
If aggressive, the effect on milk production may be similar to the effect of breast reduction surgery. In some male chest contouring, the nipple and areola are completely cut from the breast and relocated on a different part of the chest (Knox 2017). All the milk ducts are cut during this free nipple graft, making it unlikely the person would be able to provide any milk.
Other breastfeeding problems are also possible.